Download the full paper here: Final Version Helmut Kramer
born December 1940, Leoben
University Training in History, German Literatur and Philosophy at the Universities of Graz and Vienna (Ph.D. in History in 1964 at the University of Vienna /Postgraduate Training in Political Science at the Institute for Advanced Studies, Vienna (1964-65) and at the Stanford University, USA (1965-66) Habilitation in Political Science at the University of Konstanz, Germany (1976)
Professor of Political Science at the University of Vienna 1981-2006, Directeur des Etudes Associe, Maison des Sciences des l’Homme Paris (1990-2004), Researchfields International Relations, Foreign Policy, European Union
During the past 20 years, Austria’s foreign policy has undergone far-reaching changes as a consequence of Austria’s membership in the European Union. Austria’s entry into the European Union broadened its foreign policy agenda: it became involved in a wide range of international issues and in the economic and political positions and bargaining processes of the EU in the international system. On the other hand, EU membership placed considerable constraints on Austria’s formerly independent national foreign policy, especially on Austria’s neutrality. This article gives an overview of the development of Austrian foreign policy since 1995, analyzing the developments leading from an active foreign policy profile in the 1970s and 1980s to a more passive, reactive foreign policy after entry into the EU. The main factors responsible for this development are a general weakening of the pro-active political approach in Austria’s EU policy and in international affairs, continued cuts in the Austrian foreign service budget, and the growing impact of the trend towards renationalization and provincialisation in domestic politics.